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The Resurrection Molecule – Trehalose


Trehalose restores life, consciousness, and revives.

It’s what gives the resurrection plant its ability to completely revive itself.


Trehalose (from Turkish 'trehala') – is a sugar consisting of two molecules of glucose.[1]


Trehalose comes from a sugar compound found in various bacteria, fungi and plants, as it is the source of energy and moisture for cellular membranes. Trehalose is known for its lubricating, hydrating and protective properties. It has a protective and stabilizing action on cell membranes, preventing the denaturation of the proteins and the degradation of lipids. It is also known for its healing qualities and its antioxidant action. Some studies also suggest that trehalose might be able to support cognitive function and help keep the body hydrated.[2]


Trehalose appears to be the most effective sugar for protection against desiccation (the removal of moisture from something). This very useful property, known as anhydrobiosis, confers on an organism the ability to survive almost complete dehydration for prolonged periods and subsequently reanimate (restore to life or consciousness; revive).

It’s what gives the resurrection plant its ability to completely revive itself[3].


Common names for this plant include flower of stone, false rose of Jericho, rose of Jericho, resurrection plant, resurrection moss, dinosaur plant, siempre viva, stone flower, and doradilla.


"Rose of Jericho" in reference to the biblical city of Jericho, constantly reborn from its ashes. Similarly, the capacity of the resurrection plant (S. lepidophylla) for revival on rehydration allows it to resurrect and resume growth after long periods of drought.

The plant was considered a lucky charm and was passed on in families from generation to generation.


The plant is said to absorb "negative energy" when worn on the body.


Trehalose replaces water in the desiccated organism by hydrogen bonding interactions with polar groups on membrane lipids and protein.


Trehalose and membrane lipid bilayers


Lipid (more correctly phospholipid) bilayers are essential components of cells. As well as forming a physical barrier between the contents of the cell and its environment, key intracellular organelles are formed from lipid bilayers.


A degree of hydration is essential for the integrity of lipid bilayers. Desiccation causes irreversible damage to the integrity of the cell and, in particular, results in lipid phase transition, a change that trehalose has been shown to inhibit. Trehalose thus maintains the lipid in the liquid phase in the absence of water.


It has been shown that the stabilization of lipid systems with trehalose enables the membranes to retain both their functional properties (eg, calcium transport, ATPase activity) and cellular contents. In the great majority of studies, trehalose is the most effective saccharide for maintaining the integrity of phospholipid bilayers.


Mushrooms are a great source of Trehalose[4]


They sometimes call trehalose “mushroom sugar.” Here are the main edible mushrooms that have trehalose

When unicellular organisms are exposed to stress, they adapt by synthesizing huge amounts of trehalose, which helps them in retaining cellular integrity.


Longevity


Trehalose enhances longevity by inhibiting the Insulin/IGF axis in nematodes.

The IGF1 pathway activated by insulin is known to be associated with accelerated aging and age-related degenerative diseases and is frequently activated in older people, though it plays important roles in all stages of human development. In fact, we believe that activation of this pathway is a root cause of aging.


The 2010 publication Trehalose extends longevity in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans reports: “Trehalose is a disaccharide of glucose found in diverse organisms and is suggested to act as a stress protectant against heat, cold, desiccation, anoxia, and oxidation. Here, we demonstrate that treatment of Caenorhabditis elegans with trehalose starting from the young-adult stage extended the mean life span by over 30%[5] without any side effects.


Surprisingly, trehalose treatment starting even from the old-adult stage shortly thereafter retarded the age-associated decline in survivorship and extended the remaining life span by 60%.


Read more here.


In plants, trehalose is seen in sunflower seeds, moonwort, Selaginella plants, and sea algae. Within the fungi, it is prevalent in some mushrooms, such as shiitake (Lentinula edodes), oyster, king oyster, and golden needle.


Trehalose is the major carbohydrate energy storage molecule used by insects for flight.

In 1832, H.A.L. Wiggers discovered trehalose in an ergot of rye connected to the drink of immortality (Soma drink).[6]


Trehalose has the ability to form hydrogen bonds, they self-associate in water to form clusters of various sizes.


Anhydrous (of a substance, especially a crystalline compound containing no water) forms of trehalose readily regain moisture to form the dihydrate.


So Trehalose can form hydrogen bonds in the absence of water. A truly remarkable thing!


Hydrate


In chemistry, a hydrate is a substance that contains water or its constituent elements.

Many organic molecules, as well as inorganic molecules, form crystals that incorporate water into the crystalline structure without chemical alteration of the organic molecule (water of crystallization).


The sugar trehalose, for example, exists in both an anhydrous form (melting point 203 °C) and as a dihydrate (melting point 97 °C). Protein crystals commonly have as much as 50% water content.


Clathrate hydrates


Clathrate hydrates (also known as gas hydrates, gas clathrates, etc.) are water ice with gas molecules trapped within; they are a form of clathrate[7].


Clathrate hydrates, or gas hydrates, clathrates, hydrates, etc., are crystalline water-based solids physically resembling ice, in which small non-polar molecules (typically gases) or polar molecules with large hydrophobic moieties are trapped inside "cages" of hydrogen-bonded, frozen water molecules.


In other words, clathrate hydrates are clathrate compounds in which the host molecule is water and the guest molecule is typically a gas or liquid. Without the support of the trapped molecules, the lattice structure of hydrate clathrates would collapse into conventional ice crystal structure or liquid water.


Natural gas hydrates are seen as a potentially vast energy resource and several countries have dedicated national programs to develop this energy resource. Clathrate hydrate has also been of great interest as technology enablers for many applications like seawater desalination, gas storage, carbon dioxide capture & storage, cooling medium for data center and district cooling etc.


Clathrates are suspected to occur in large quantities on some outer planets, moons and trans-Neptunian objects, binding gas at fairly high temperatures and are involved with the formation of stars and planets mainly involving space fullerene ices, zeolitic ices, and Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs).

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Polycyclic_aromatic_hydrocarbon#/media/File:Hexabenzocoronene_AFM.jpg


Fullerene

http://images.spaceref.com/news/2010/PR1004-small.jpg

Clathrate

https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/9/91/Ne-water_clathrate.png

Zeolite

https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/a5/Faujasite_structure.svg/800px-Faujasite_structure.svg.png

In other words, Trehalose, Fullerenes, PAHs, and Zeolites all share a common theme in their structure and geometric shapes, which just happens to be the stuff that stars and planets are made of.


Clathrate vs. Clathrin


Also, of note, Clathrate has similar spelling as Clathrin.


With its intricate meshwork of protein braids and alluring symmetry, clathrin is sure to seize your attention. It was named in the 1960s for its clathrate (lattice of bars) appearance in electron micrographs, and to this day, this beautiful molecule invokes intensive study. Like many proteins, clathrin represents a perfect case of form following function; it performs critical roles in shaping rounded vesicles for intracellular trafficking.[8]


Cells can safely transport molecules over great distances in small vesicles that bud into the cytoplasm from an organelle's surface and then fuse with the target organelle. In most cases these vesicles do not form spontaneously, but rather, are facilitated by coat-proteins like clathrin.


Cells endocytose vesicles of various sizes from the plasma membrane, for example, to take in nutrients, to import signaling receptors, to mediate an immune response after sampling the extracellular world, and to clean up the cell debris left by tissue inflammation. In some cases, however, the endocytic mechanism also provides a pathway for raiding pathogens or toxins!


Clathrin cages are composed of symmetrical three-legged components called triskelions.


This triskelion will bind to other membrane-attached triskelia to form a rounded lattice of hexagons and pentagons, reminiscent of the panels on a soccer ball, exactly like the buckminsterfullerene.

Buckminsterfullerene

https://www.acs.org/content/dam/acsorg/molecule/archive-new/buckminsterfullerene-special.png

Clathrin

https://ris.utwente.nl/ws/portalfiles/portal/15052531/thesis_M_Giani.pdf

Methane clathrate block

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Clathrate_hydrate#/media/File:Gashydrat_mit_Struktur.jpg

Autophagy


In 2017 research was published showing that trehalose induces autophagy by activating TFEB, a protein that acts as a master regulator of the autophagy-lysosome pathway.

Autophagy[9] (from the Ancient Greek αὐτόφαγος autóphagos, meaning "self-devouring" and κύτος kýtos, meaning "hollow") is the natural, regulated mechanism of the cell that removes unnecessary or dysfunctional components. It allows the orderly degradation and recycling of cellular components.


TFEB is activated by PGC1-alpha and promotes reduction of htt aggregation and neurotoxicity in a mouse model of Huntington disease.[10]


PGC-1α is the master regulator of mitochondrial biogenesis.[11]


PGC-1α is thought to be a master integrator of external signals. It is known to be activated by a host of factors, including:


1. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS), both formed endogenously in the cell as by-products of metabolism but upregulated during times of cellular stress.


2. It is strongly induced by cold exposure, linking this environmental stimulus to adaptive thermogenesis.


3. It is induced by endurance exercise and recent research has shown that PGC-1α determines lactate metabolism, thus preventing high lactate levels in endurance athletes and making lactate as an energy source more efficient.


4. cAMP response element-binding (CREB) proteins, activated by an increase in cAMP following external cellular signals.


5. Protein kinase B / Akt is thought to downregulate PGC-1α, but upregulate its downstream effectors, NRF1 and NRF2. Akt itself is activated by PIP3, often upregulated by PI3K after G-protein signals. The Akt family is also known to activate pro-survival signals as well as metabolic activation.


6. SIRT1 binds and activates PGC-1α through deacetylation inducing gluconeogenesis without affecting mitochondrial biogenesis.


PGC-1α has been shown to exert positive feedback circuits on some of its upstream regulators:


1. PGC-1α increases Akt (PKB) and Phospho-Akt (Ser 473 and Thr 308) levels in muscle.[17]


2. PGC-1α leads to calcineurin activation.


PGC-1α has also been shown to drive NAD biosynthesis to play a large role in renal protection in Acute Kidney Injury.


PGC-1α and beta has furthermore been implicated in polarization to anti-inflammatory M2 macrophages by interaction with PPARγ with upstream activation of STAT6.[31] An independent study confirmed the effect of PGC-1 on the polarization of macrophages towards M2 via STAT6/PPAR gamma and furthermore demonstrated that PGC-1 inhibits proinflammatory cytokine production.


Trehalose targets PGC-1![12]

The Etymology of Trehalose


From New Latin trehāla, from Turkish tıgala, from Persian تیغال‎ (tīgẖāl, “a kind of manna”).[13]

Trehala

1. Manna from the cocoons of the insects Larinus maculatus and Larinus nidificans.

(manna): nest sugar

Manna[14]

1. (biblical) Food miraculously produced for the Israelites in the desert in the book of Exodus.

2. (by extension) Any boon which comes into one's hands by good luck. quotations

3. The sugary sap of the manna gum tree which oozes out from holes drilled by insects and falls to the ground around the tree.[1]

Manna gum


Any of various eucalyptus trees that exude manna, especially Eucalyptus viminalis, found in Australia.[15]

Halo from Tre-halose


From Latin halōs, from Ancient Greek ἅλως (hálōs, “disk of the sun or moon; ring of light around the sun or moon; threshing floor with its surrounding threshold; disk of a shield”); itself of unknown origin, see هلال‎ and תהילה‎. Used in English since 1563, sense of light around someone’s head since 1646.


halo (plural halos or haloes)


1. A circular band of coloured light, visible around the sun or moon etc., caused by reflection and refraction of light by ice crystals in the atmosphere.

2. (astronomy) A cloud of gas and other matter surrounding and captured by the gravitational field of a large diffuse astronomical object, such as a galaxy or cluster of galaxies.

3. Anything resembling this band, such as an effect caused by imperfect developing of photographs.

4. (religion) nimbus, a luminous disc, often of gold, around or over the heads of saints, etc., in religious paintings.

5. The metaphorical aura of glory, veneration or sentiment which surrounds an idealized entity.

6. (medicine) A circular brace used to keep the head and neck in position.


Synonyms

from *h₂enh₁- (“to breathe”)

vocative singular of hala


Hala[16] (Arabic: هالة‎) is both a Muslim and Christian female given name meaning "the aura of light around the moon". It is a cognate of Hebrew Hila (given name).


Meaning: "(starlight)"


Hala[17]


1. sin

Ke kala mai i ka ʻino a me ka hala.

Forgiving iniquity, transgression and sin.


2. error


hala

1. screw pine, pandanus, Pandanus tectorius. [hala tree, hala fruit, or Pandan Leaf Powder; fruit resembles a pineapple, Thatch Screwpine is well adapted to grow in the many soil types present on coasts, including quartz sand, coral sand, and peat, as well as in limestone and basalt.


The fruit can be eaten raw or cooked and is a major source of food in Micronesia, especially in the atolls.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Atoll#/media/File:Penrhyn_Aerial_EFS_1280.jpg


Atolls[18] are associated with coral reefs. Coral reefs are made of Calcium Carbonite. The remains of an ancient atoll as a hill in a limestone area is called a reef knoll. The limestone is calcium carbonite.


This is important to understand because Piezoelectricity works, in part, through the activities surrounding these mechanisms with limestone and calcium carbonite. A malfunctioning Piezo gene can lead to cellular dehydration.


Trehalose may act to help "resurrect" a dehydrating cell and revive a proper electrical signaling channel. [Emphasis added]


Piezo genes are mechanically-activated ion channel that links mechanical forces to biological signals. [Emphasis added]


Piezoelectricity is the electric charge that accumulates in certain solid materials (such as crystals, certain ceramics, and biological matter such as bone, DNA, and various proteins).


You have piezoelectrical crystals literally inside you!


In fact, scientists have succeeded using trehalose in driving a melody integrated circuit (IC) and a piezo speaker by connecting five insect biofuel cells (BFC).


Truly profound!


Land Under The Wave


In Irish mythology Tír na nÓg ([tʲiːɾʲ n̪ˠə ˈn̪ˠoːɡ]; Land of the Young) or Tír na hÓige (Land of Youth) is one of the names for the Celtic Otherworld. Other Old Irish names for the Otherworld include Tír Tairngire (Land of Promise/Promised Land),[2][3] Tír fo Thuinn (Land under the Wave),[2] Mag Mell (Plain of Delight/Delightful Plain),[2] Ildathach (Multicoloured Place),[4] and Emain Ablach (the Isle of Apple Trees).[19]


An atoll may be considered a Tír fo Thuinn (Land under the Wave).


All together trehalose seems to be a miracle molecule connected to the Manna, The Land Under the Wave, and extreme longevity. It is found throughout the universe and has the ability to form bonds that otherwise might not be possible.


Other Sources:

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Trehalose [2] https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3102588/ [3] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Selaginella_lepidophylla [4] https://www.anti-agingfirewalls.com/2014/06/18/trehelose-a-natural-sugar-that-could-possibly-be-consumed-for-health-and-longevity/ [5] http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20477758 [6] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ergot [7] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hydrate [8] https://pdb101.rcsb.org/motm/88#:~:text=With%20its%20intricate%20meshwork%20of,beautiful%20molecule%20invokes%20intensive%20study. [9] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Autophagy [10] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/TFEB [11] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/PPARGC1A [12] https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6152536/ [13] https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/trehala [14] https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/manna [15] https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/manna_gum [16] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hala_(given_name) [17] https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/hala [18] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Atoll [19] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/T%C3%ADr_na_n%C3%93g

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