Free COVID-19 Research Course

Pandemic Preparedness

Knowledge combined with action dispels fear. Take a deep dive into the inter-workings of COVID-19 and discover the exact genes and biochemical pathways involved.


(SARDS) - (ARDS) - COVID-19 - Part 1


(SARDS) - (ARDS) - COVID-19 - Part 2


(SARDS) - (ARDS) - COVID-19 - Part 3


(SARDS) - (ARDS) - COVID-19 -Part 4


COVID19 - Hemoglobin - Oxygen - Hypoxia



Exosomes can transfer molecules from one cell to another via membrane vesicle trafficking, thereby influencing the immune system, such as dendritic cells and B cells, and may play a functional role in mediating adaptive immune responses to pathogens.

It is conceivable that endocytosis is the main mechanism of exosome uptake.

Endocytosis can be divided into at least four pathways, including caveolae-dependent endocytosis, clathrin-dependent endocytosis, macropinocytosis, and phagocytosis.


The endocytosis and exocytosis of vesicles allows cells to communicate, to transfer nutrients, to import signaling receptors, to mediate an immune response after sampling the extracellular world, and to clean up the cell debris left by tissue inflammation. The endocytic pathway can be hijacked by viruses and other pathogens in order to gain entry to the cell during infection.

Mannose supports the clathrin triskelion like none other.

Vinpocetine impacts clathrin and microtubule function. Microtubules and Actin play off of each other to maintain equalibrium.

Clathrin-mediated endocytosis, is a process by which cells absorb metabolites, hormones, proteins – and in some cases viruses. Clathrin triskelions form to help transport cargo. Dynamin then assists in the scission, or the pinching off, of that vesicle to then be further transported into the cell.

Flavonoids support Dynamin, which then, in turn supports the clathrin triskelion and ultimately exosome uptake.

Kaempferol, quercetin (prunella vulgaris), luteolin (prunella vulgaris), rosmarinic acid (prunella vulgaris), Salvia officinalis (Danshen), Chrysin (Propolis), and Baicalein (Skullcap) all fall within the "Flavone" family.

HSP70 (Heat shock protein 70) is also a well-known marker protein of the exosome membrane.

Ginger has been shown to assist HSP70.


Triterpenoids have been shown to assist caveolae-dependent endocytosis.

Ursolic acid and Oleanolic acid are considered triterpenoids. Both are found in Prunella Vulgaris. Nattokinase (Glycine max), and Licorice (Glycyrrhiza) also fall into the triterpenoid family.


Because the process of macropinocytosis is non-specific, many pathogens take advantage of macropinosomes to infect their target cells.

Macropinocytosis are actin dependent. Bladderwrack assists in correct actin polymerization.

Cryptotanshinone (Danshen) also assists in F-actin polymerization, which then assists in macropinocytosis.

Macropinosomes gradually acquire lysosomal markers involving Mannose-6-Phosphate, which requires Mannose.


Ashwagandha and Ginger have been shown to impact phagocytosis.

Phagocytosis also involves mannose receptors to help determine self vs. non-self.

Bladderwrack is a rich food source of fucose and enhances phagocytosis (or consumption of invaders).

Furthermore, glucosamine (NAG) inhibited the release of granule enzyme lysozyme from phagocytosing neutrophils and suppressed neutrophil chemotaxis toward zymosan-activated serum. In addition, glucosamine inhibited fMLP-induced up-regulation of CD11b significantly and also impacts polymerization of actin.

Heparan sulfate proteoglycans (GAGs)at the cell surface are also involved in the binding step for phagocytosis. Nattokinase and Chondroitin sulphate assist is GAG synthesis.

Baical skullcap also assists in phagocytosis.

Danshen also significantly impacts phagocytosis.

Pomegranate, Resveratrol, and Sea buckthorn also impact phagocytosis.

β-glucans induce the process of phagocytosis, resulting in the elimination of invading microbes by binding to the dectin-1 receptor.